Don’t Refactor. Rebuild. Kinda.

I recently had the chance to speak at the wonderful Lean Agile Scotland conference. The conference had a very wide range of subjects being discussed on an amazingly high level: complexity theory, lean thinking, agile methods, and even technical practices!

I followed a great presentation by Steve Smith on how the popularity of feature branching strategies make Continuous Integration difficult to impossible. I couldn’t have asked for a better lead in for my own talk.

Which is about giving up and starting over. Kinda.

Learning environments

Why? Because, when you really get down to it, refactoring an old piece of junk, sorry, legacy code, is bloody difficult!

Sure, if you give me a few experienced XP guys, or ‘software craftsmen’, and let us at it, we’ll get it done. But I don’t usually have that luxury. And most organisations don’t.

When you have a team that is new to the agile development practices, like TDD, refactoring, clean code, etc. then learning that stuff in the context of a big ball of mud is really hard.

You see, when people start to learn about something like TDD, they do some exercises, read a book, maybe even get a training. They’ll see this kind of code:

Example code from Kent Beck's book: "Test Drive Developmen: By Example"

Example code from Kent Beck’s book: “Test Drive Development: By Example”

Then they get back to work, and are on their own again, and they’re confronted with something like this:

Code Sample from my post "Code Cleaning: A refactoring example in 50 easy steps"

Code Sample from my post “Code Cleaning: A refactoring example in 50 easy steps”

And then, when they say that TDD doesn’t work, or that agile won’t work in their ‘real world’ situation we say they didn’t try hard enough. In these circumstances it is very hard to succeed. 

So how can we deal with situations like this? As I mentioned above, an influx of experienced developers that know how to get a legacy system under control is wonderful, but not very likely. Developers that haven’t done that sort of thing before really will need time to gain the necessary skills, and that needs to be done in a more controlled, or controllable, environment. Like a new codebase, started from scratch.

Easy now, I understand your reluctance! Throwing away everything you’ve built and starting over is pretty much the reverse of the advice we normally give.

Let me explain using an example.

Contine reading

Outside in, whatever’s at the core

I haven’t written anything on here for quite a while. I haven’t been sitting still, though. I’ve gone independent (yes, I’m for hire!) and been working with a few clients, generally having a lot of fun.

I was also lucky enough to be able to function as Chet’s assistent (he doesn’t need one, which was part of the luck:-) while he was giving the CSD course at Qualogy, recently. Always a joy to observe, and some valuable reminders of some basics of TDD!

One of those basics is the switch between design and implementation that you regularly make when test-driving your code. When you write the first test for some functionality, you are writing a test against a non-existing piece of code. You might create an instance of an as-yet non-existing class (Arranging the context of the test), call a non-existent method on that class (Acting on that context), and then calling another non-existing method to verify results (Asserting). Then, to get the test to compile (but still fail), you create those missing elements. All that time, you’re not worrying about implementation, you’re only worrying about design.

Later, when you’re adding a second test, you’ll be using those same elements, but changing the implementation of the class you’ve created. Only when a test needs some new concepts will the design again evolve, but those tests will trigger an empty or trivial implementation for any new elements.

So separation of design and implementation, a good thing. And not just when writing micro-tests to drive low-level design for new, fresh classes. What if you’re dealing with a large, legacy, untested code base? You can use a similar approach to discover your (future…) design.

Contine reading

DevOps and Continuous Delivery

If you want to go fast and have high quality, communication has to be instant, and you need to automate everything. Structure the organisation to make this possible, learn to use the tools to do the automation.

There’s a lot going on about DevOps and Continuous Delivery. Great buzzwords, and actually great concepts. But not altogether new. But for many organisations they’re an introduction to agile concepts, and sometimes that means some of the background that people have when arriving at these things in the natural way, through Agile process improvement, is missing. So what are we talking about?

DevOps: The combination of software developers and infrastructure engineers in the same team with shared responsibility for the delivered software

Continuous Delivery: The practice of being able to deliver software to (production) environments in a completely automated way. With VM technology this includes the roll-out of the environments.

Both of these are simply logical extensions of Agile and Lean software development practices. DevOps is one particular instance of the Agile multi-functional team. Continuous Delivery is the result of Agile’s practice of automating any repeating process, and in particular enabled by automated tests and continuous integration. And both of those underlying practices are the result of optimizing your process to take any delays out of it, a common Lean practice.

In Practice

DevOps is an organisational construct. The responsibility for deployment is integrated in the multi-functional agile team in the same way that requirement analysis, testing and coding were already part of that. This means an extension to the necessary skills in the teams. System Administrator skills, but also a fairly new set of skills for controlling the infrastructure as if it were code with versioning, testing, and continuous integration.

Continuous Delivery is a term for the whole of the process that a DevOps team performs. A Continuous Delivery (CD) process consists of developing software, automating testing, automating deployment, automating infrastructure deployment, and linking those elements so that a pipeline is created that automatically moves developed software through the normal DTAP stages.

So both of these concepts have practices and tools attached, which we’ll discuss in short.

Practices and Tools

DevOps

Let’s start with DevOps. There are many standard practices aimed at integrating skills and improving communication in a team. Agile development teams have been doing this for a while now, using:

  • Co-located team
  • Whole team (all necessary skills are available in the team)
  • Pairing
  • Working in short iterations
  • Shared (code, but also product) ownership
  • (Acceptance) Test Driven Development

DevOps teams need to do the same, including the operations skill set into the team.

One question that often comes up is: “Does the entire team need to suddenly have this skill?”. The answer to that is, of course, “No”. But in the same way that Agile teams have made testing a whole team effort, so operations becomes a whole team effort. The people in the team with deep skills in this area will work together with some of the other team members in the execution of tasks. Those other will learn something about this work, and become able to handle at least the simpler items independently. The ops person can learn how to better structure his scripts, enabling re-use, from developers. Or how to test and monitor the product better from testers.

An important thing to notice is that these tools we use to work well together as a team are cross-enforcing. They enforce each-other’s effectiveness. That means that it’s much harder to learn to be effective as a team if you only adopt one or two of these.

Continuous Delivery

Continuous Delivery is all about decreasing the feedback cycle of software development. And feedback comes from different places. Mostly testing and user feedback. Testing happens at different levels (unit, service, integration, acceptance, …) and on different environments (dev, test, acceptance, production). The main focus for CD is to get the feedback for each of those to come as fast as possible.

To do that, we need to have our tests run at every code-change, on every environment, as reliable and quickly as possible. And to do that, we need to be able to completely control deployment of and to those environments, automatically, and for the full software stack.

And to be able to to that, there are a number of tools available. Some have been around for a long time, while others are relatively new. Most especially the tools that are able to control full (virtualised) environments are still relatively fresh. Some of the testing tooling is not exactly new, but seems still fairly unknown in the industry.

What do we use that for?

You’re already familiar with Continuous Integration, so you know about checking in code to version control, about unit tests, about branching strategies (basically: try not to), about CI servers.

If you have a well constructed CI solution, it will include building the code, running unit tests, creating a deployment package, and deploying to a test environment. The deployment package will be usable on different environments, with configuration provided separately. You might use tools such the cargo plugin for deployment to test (and further?), and keep a versioned history of all your deployment artefacts in a repository.

So what is added to that when we talk about Continuous Delivery? First of all, there’s the process of automated promotion of code to subsequent environments: the deployment pipeline.

pipeline

This involves deciding which tests to run at what stage (based on dependency on environment, and runtime) to optimize a short feedback loop with as detailed a detection of errors as possible. It also requires decisions on which part of the pipeline to run fully automatic, and where to still assume human intervention is necessary.

Another thing that we are newly interested in for the DevOps/CD situation is infrastructure as code. This has been enabled by the emergence of virtualisation, and has become manageable with tools such as Puppet and Chef. These tools make the definition of an environment into code, including hardware specs, OS, installed software, networking, and deployment of our own artefacts. That means that a test environment can be a completely controlled systems, whether it is run on a developer’s laptop, or on a hosted server environment. And that kind of control removes many common error situations from the software delivery equation.

Scaling Agile?

There’s a lot of discussion in the Agile community on the matter of scaling agile. Should we all adopt Dean Leffingwell’s Scaled Agile Framework? Do the Spotify tribe/squad thing? Or just roll our own? Or is Ron Jeffries’ intuition right, and do the terms scaling and agile simply not mix?

Ron’s stance seems to be that many of Agile’s principles simply don’t apply at scale. Or apply in the same way, so why act differently at scale? That might be true, but might also be a little too abstract to be of much use to most people running into questions when they start working with more than one team on a codebase.

Time and relative dimension in space

When Ron and Chet came around to our office last week, Chet mentioned that he was playing around with the analogy of coordination in time (as opposed to cross-team) when thinking about scaling. This immediately brought things into a new perspective for me, and I thought I’d share that here.

If we have a single team that will be working on a product/project for five years, how are they going to ensure that the team working on it now communicates what is important to the team that is working on it three, four or five years from now?

Now that is a question we can easily understand. We know what it takes to write software that is maintainable, changeable, self-documenting. We know how to write requirements that become executable, living documentation. We know how to write tests that run through continuous integration. We even know how to write deployment manifests that control the whole production environment to give us continuous deployment.

So why would this be any different when instead of one team working five years on the same product, we have five teams working for one year?

This break in this post is intentionally left blank to allow you to think that over.

Simple Design

scrum_tardis

Scrum really is bigger on the inside!

This way of looking at the problem simplifies the matter considerably, doesn’t it? I have found repeatedly that there are more technical problems in scaling (and agile adoption in general) than organizational ones. Of course, very often the technical problems are caused by the organizational ones, but putting them central to the question of scaling might actually help re-frame the discussions on a management level in a very positive way.

But getting back to the question: what would be the difference?

Let’s imagine a well constructed Agile project. We have an inception where the purpose of the product is clearly communicated by the customer/PO. We sketch a rough idea of architecture and features together. We make sure we understand enough of the most important features to split off a minimum viable version of it, perhaps using a story map. We start the first sprint with a walking skeleton of the product. We build up the product by starting with the minimal versions of a couple of features. We continue working on the different features later, extending them to more luxurious versions based on customer preference.

As long as the product is still fairly well contained, this would be exactly the same when we are with a few teams. We’d have come to a general agreement on design early on, and would talk when a larger change comes up. Continuous integration will take care of much of the lower level coordination, with our customer tests and unit testing providing context.

One area does become more explicit: dependencies. Where the single team would automatically handle dependencies in time by influencing prioritization, the multiple teams would need to have a commonly agreed (and preferably commonly built) interface in existence before they could be working on some features in parallel. This isn’t really different from the single-team version above, where the walking skeleton/minimal viable feature version would also happen before further work. But it would be felt as something needing some special attention, and cooperation between teams.

If we put these technical considerations central, that resolves a number of issues in scaling.  It could also allow for a much better risk / profit trade-offs by integrating this approach with a set-based approach to projects. But I’ll leave that for a future post.

On Discipline: Fooling yourself is an important skill!

Discipline is an interesting subject. One that I find myself regularly talking about. Or discussing about.derren brown mind control stunt

In the last year I lost about 20kg of body weight through a combination of diet change and exercise. This apparently give some people the impression that I am very disciplined. I’m not. I do know, however, how to make change easier to absorb. And how to inspect and adapt.

Fooling yourself is an important skill

The best ways to make sure you are able to keep discipline is to make being disciplined easy. And luckily, human beings are exceedingly good at fooling ourselves (click on the picture of Derren Brown, here, to watch a nice youtube clip demonstrating this).

For losing weight, this included:

  • Making sure that what I could eat was as least as nice to eat as what I had to stop eating (more meat, less potato chips)
  • Teaming up with my cousin to make not going to the gym not an option
  • Daily measurements of multiple metrics to get an understanding of progress, and variation
  • A very substantial reduction of insulin use, and improvement in blood sugar values with the corresponding increase in energy levels
  • Setting sensible targets that I adjusted as soon as I reached them.
  • Regular experiments to see what helped (drinking a lot of water), and what didn’t (too much exercise)

It’s just common sense. If you want change, make sure that what you’re changing to is enjoyable, and that your progress is clearly apparent. And a little peer pressure can also be useful.

Many of the practices promoted for agile processes fall in the same mould.

  • Short iterations give a clear sense of purpose for the short term, and a sense of accomplishment when completing them.
  • Visual progress, such as a scrum/task board give a direct view of progress, and the impression of things getting done (plus a little peer pressure…) when everyone on the team gets up and moves post-its a couple of times a day
  • Acceptance Test Driven development gives clear and achievable goals
  • Pair programming helps keeping focus throughout the day
  • Test Driven Development does the same, and again keeps progress visible
  • Retrospectives (and the resulting improvement experiments) give the sense of continuous improvement needed stimulate a positive feeling of support of the surrounding organisation

It might be slightly irreverent to throw all of these things together and talk about ‘fooling ourselves’. Is working in concordance with human needs ‘fooling yourself’? I don’t know, but I rather like the sound-byte:-)

On Discipline, Feedback and Management

Change is hard. If we know that about 80% of organisational change programs fail, then it’s easy to appreciate just how hard. Why is that? And, more importantly, what can we do to make it easier?

Recently, I saw a tweet come by from Alan Shalloway. He wrote that, back in the days, people were saying: Waterfall (though they didn’t call it that, back then, I think) is fine, people are just not doing it right. All we need is apply enough discipline, and a little common sense, and it will work perfectly! I think Alan was commenting on an often heard sound in the Agile community about failing Scrum adoptions: You’re just not doing it right! You need to have more discipline!

This is, actually, a valid comment. In fact, both views are valid. On the one hand, just saying that people are not doing it right is not very helpful. Saying you need to be more disciplined is certainly not helpful. (Just look at the success rate of weight loss programs (or abstinence programs against teen pregnancies).  Change is hard, because it requires discipline. Any process requires discipline. The best way to ensure a process is successfully adopted is to make sure the process supports discipline. This is, again, hard.

This post talks about discipling. About how it can be supported by your process. About how it’s often not supported for managers in Agile organisations, and then of course how to ensure that management does get that kind of support in their work.

In Support Of Discipline

Take a look at Scrum, throw in XP for good measure, and let’s have a look at what kind of discipline we need to have, and how the process does (or does not!) support that discipline.

Agile Feedback Loops

Agile Feedback Loops

The eXtreme Programming practices often generate a lot of resistence. Programmers were, and are, very hesitant in trying them out, and some require quite a bit of practice to do well. Still, most of these practices have gained quite a wide acceptance. Not having unit-testing in place is certainly frowned upon nowadays. It may not be done in every team, but at least they usually feel some embarrassment about that. Lack of Continuous Integration is now an indication that you’re not taking things seriously.

Working structurally using TDD, and Pair Programming, have seen slower adoption.

Extreme Programming Practices

Extreme Programming Practices from XProgramming.com

If we look at some practices from Scrum, we can see a similar distribution of things that are popularly adopted, and some things that are… less accepted.  The Daily Stand-Up, for instance can usually be seen in use, even in teams just getting started with Scrum. Often, so it the Scrum Board. The Planning Meeting comes next, but the Demo/Review and certainly the Retrospective, are much less popular.

Why?

All of these practices require discipline, but some require more discipline than others. What makes something require less discipline?

  • It’s easy!
  • Quick Feedback: It obviously and quickly shows it’s worth the effort
  • Shared Responsibility: The responsibility of being disciplined is shared by a larger group

Let’s see how this works for some of the practices we mentioned above. The Daily Stand-Up, for instance, scores high on all three items. It’s pretty easy to do, you do it together with the whole team, and the increased communication is usually immediately obvious and useful. Same for the Scrum Board.

The Planning Meeting also scores on all three, but scores lower for the first two. It’s not all that easy, as the meetings often are quite long, especially at the start. And though it’s obvious during the planning meeting that there is a lot of value in the increased communication and clarity of purpose, the full effect only becomes apparent during the course of the sprint.

The Demo is also not all that easy, and the full effect of it can take multiple sprints to become apparent. Though quick feedback on the current sprint will help the end-result, and the additional communication with stakeholders will benefit the team in the longer run, these are mostly advantages over the longer term. To exacerbate this effect, responsibility for the demo is often pushed to one member of the team (often the scrum master), which can make the rest of the team give it less attention than is optimal.

Retrospectives are, of course, the epitome of feedback. Or they should be. Often, though, this is one of the less successful practices in teams new to Scrum. The reasons for that are surprisingly unsurprising: there is often no follow-up on items brought forward in the retrospective (feedback on the feedback!), solving issues is not taken up as a responsibility for the whole team, and quite a few issues found are actually hard to fix!

The benefits of Continuous Integration are usually quite quickly visible to a development team. Often, they’re visible even before the CI is in use, as many teams will be suffering from many ‘integration issues’ that come out late in the process. It’s not all that hard to set-up, and though one person can set it up, ‘not breaking the build’ is certainly shared by the whole team.

Unit testing can be very hard to get started with, but again the advantages *if* you use it are immediately apparent, and provide value for the whole team. Refactoring. Well, anyone who has refactored a bit of ugly code, can attest how nice it feels to clean things up. In fact, in the case of refactoring the problem is often ensuring that teams don’t drop everything just to go and refactor everything… Still, additional feedback mechanisms, like code statistics using Sonar or similar tools, can help in the adoption of code cleaning.

Pairing shows quick feedback, and is shared by at least one other person, but it’s often very hard, and has to deal with other things: management misconceptions. We’ll talk about that a little later. TDD‘s advantages are more subtle than just testing at all. So the benefit is less obvious and quick. It’s also a lot harder, and has no group support. These practices do reinforce each other, testing, TDD, and refactoring are easier to do if done together, pairing.

So we can see at least some correlation between adoption and the way a practice supports discipline. This makes a lot of sense: The easier something is to do, the more obvious its benefits, and the more shared its burdens by a group, the better is supports its users, and the more it is adopted.

Feedback within the team

One large part of this is: feedback rules. This is not a surprise for most Agile practitioners, as it’s one of the bases of Agile processes. But it is good to always keep in mind: if you want to achieve change, focus on supporting it with some form of feedback. One form of feedback that is used e.g. Scrum and Kanban, is the visualisation of the work. Use of a task board, or a Kanban board, especially a real, physical one, has a remarkable effect on the way people do their work. It’s still surprising to me how far the effects of this simple device go in changing behaviour in a team.

Seeing how feedback and shared responsibility help in adoption of practices within the team, we could look at the various team practices and find ways to increase adoption by increasing the level of feedback, or sharing the responsibility.

The Daily Stand-Up can be improved by emphasising shared responsibility: rotating the chore of updating the burn-down, ensuring that there’s not a reporting-to-scrum-master feel by passing around a token.

The Planning Meeting could be made easier by using something different from Planning Poker if many stories need to be estimated, or this estimation could be done in separate ‘Grooming’ sessions. Feedback could be earlier by ensuring Acceptance Criteria are defined during the planning meeting (or before), so we get feedback for every story as soon as it gets picked up. Or we can stop putting hourly estimates on tasks to make the meeting go by quicker.

Retrospectives could be improved by creating a Big Visual Improvement backlog, and sticking it to the wall in the team room. And by taking the top item(s) from that backlog into the next sprint as work for the whole team to do. If it’s a backlog, we might as well start splitting those improvements up into smaller steps, to see if we can get results sooner.

All familiar advice for anyone that’s been working Agile! But how about feedback on the Agile development process as it is experienced by management?

Agile management practices

Probably the most frequently sited reason for failure of Agile initiatives, is lack of support from management. This means that an Agile process requires changes in behaviour of management. Since we’ve just seen that such changes in behaviour require discipline, we should have a look at how management is supported in that changed behaviour by feedback and sharing of responsibility.

First though, it might be good to inventory what the recommended practices for Agile Managers are. As we’ve seen, Scrum and XP provide enough guidance for the work within the team. What behaviour outside the team should they encourage? There’s already a lot that’s been written about this subject. This article by Lyssa Adkins and Michael Spayd , for instance, gives a high-level overview of responsibilities for a manager in an Agile environment. And Jurgen Apello has written a great book about the subject. For the purposes of this article, I’ll just pick three practices that are fairly concrete, and that I find particularly useful.

Focus on quality: As was also determined to be the subject requiring the most attention at the 2011 reunion of the writing of the Agile Manifesto, technical excellence is a requirement for any team that want to be Agile (or just be delivering software…) for the long term. Any manager that is dealing with an Agile team should keep stressing the importance of quality in all its forms above speed. If you go for quality first, speed will follow. And the inverse is also true: if you don’t keep quality high, slowing down until nothing can get done is assured.

Appreciate mistakes: Agile doesn’t work without feedback, but feedback is pretty useless without experimentation. If you want to improve, you need to try new things all the time. A culture that makes a big issue of mistakes, and focuses on blame will smother an Agile approach very quickly.

Fix impediments: The best way to make a team feel their own (and their works)  importance is to take anything they consider getting in the way of that very seriously. Making the prioritised list of impediments that you as a manager are working on visible, and showing (and regularly reporting) on their progress is a great way of doing that.

Note that I’ve not talked about stakeholder management, portfolio management, delivering projects to planning, or negotiating with customers. These are important, but are more in the area of the Product Owner. The same principles should apply there, though.

Let’s see how these things rate on ease, speed of feedback, and shared responsibility.

Focus on Quality. Though stressing the importance of quality to a team is not all that difficult, I’ve noticed that it can be quite difficult to get the team to accept that message. Sticking to it, and acting accordingly in the presence of outside pressures can be hard to do. Feedback will not be quick. Though there can be improvements noticeable within the team, from the outside a manager will have to wait on feedback from other parties (integration testing, customer support, customers directly, etc.) If the Agile transition is a broad organisational initiative, then the manager can find support and shared responsibility from his peers. If that’s not the case, the pressure from those peers could be in quite a different direction…

Appreciate mistakes. Again, this practice is one in which gratification is delayed. Some experiments will succeed, some will fail. The feedback from the successful ones will have to be enough to sustain the effort. The same remarks as above can be given with regards to the peer support. Support from within a team, though less helpful than from peers, can be a positive influence.

Fix impediments. The type of impediments that end on a manager’s desk are not usually the easy-to-fix ones. Still, the gratification of removing problems, make this a practice well supported by  quick feedback. And there is usually both gratitude from the team and respect for action from peers.

We can see that these management practices are much less supported by group responsibility and quick feedback loops. This is one of the reasons why managers often are the place where Agile transitions run into problems. Not because of lack of will (we all lack sufficient willpower:-), but because any change requires discipline, and discipline needs to be supported by the process

Management feedback

If we see that some important practices for managers are not sufficiently supported by our process, then the obvious question is going to be: how do we create that support?

We’ve identified two crucial aspects of supporting the discipline of change: early feedback, and shared responsibility. Both of those are not natural fits in the world of management. Managers usually do not work as part of a closely knit team. They may be part of a management team, but the frequency and intensity of communication is mostly too low to have a big impact. Managers are also expected to think of the longer term. And they should! But this does make any change more difficult to sustain, since the feedback on whether the change is successful is too far off.

By the way, if that feedback is that slow, the risk is also that change that is not  successful is kept for too long. That might be even worse…

When we talk about scaling Agile, we very quickly start talking about things such as the (much debated) Scrum of Scrums, ‘higher level’ or ‘integration’ stand-up meetings, Communities of Practice, etc. Those are good ideas, but are mostly seen as instruments to scale scrum to larger projects, and align multiple teams to project goals (and each other).  These practices help keep transparency over larger groups, but also through hierarchical lines. They help alignment between teams, by keeping other teams up-to-date of progress and issues, and help arrange communication on specialist areas of interest.

What I’m discussing in this post seems to indicate that those kind of practices are not just important in the scenario of a large project scaled over multiple teams, but are just as important for team working separately and their surrounding context.

So what can we recommend as ideas to help managers get enough feedback and support to sustain an Agile change initiative?

Work in a team. Managers need the support and encouragement (and social pressure…) that comes of working in a team context as much as anyone. This can partly be achieved by working more closely together within a management team. I’ve had some success with a whole C-level management team working as a Scrum team, for instance.

Be close to the work. At the same time, managers should be more directly following the work on the development teams. Note that I said ‘following’. We do not want to endanger the teams self-organization. I think a manager should be welcome at any team stand-up, and should also be able to speak at one. But I do recognise that there are many situations where this has led to problems, such as undue pressure being put on a team. A Scrum of Scrums, of multi-level stand-up approach can be very effective here. Even if there’s only one team, having someone from the team talk to management one level up daily can be very effective.

Visualise management tasks. Managers can not only show support for the transition in this way, they can immediately profit from it themselves. Being very visible with an impediment backlog is a big help, both to get the impediments fixed, and showing that they’re not forgotten. Starting to use a task board (or Kanban, for the more advanced situations) for the management team work is highly effective. And if A3 sheets are being put on the wall to do analysis of issues and improvement experiments, you’re living the Agile dream…

Visualise management metrics. Metrics are always a tricky subject. They can be very useful, are necessary, but can also tempt you to manage them directly (Goodhart’s Law). Still, some metrics are important to managers, and those should be made important to the teams they manage. Visualising is a good instrument to help with that. For some ideas read Esther Derby’s post on useful metrics for Agile teams. Another aspect of management, employee satisfaction, could be continuously visualised with Henrik Kniberg’s Happiness Matrix, or Jim Benson’s refinement of that.